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  • 歡迎訪問南京標桿科技有限公司!
    • 調諧特性

      How does New Focus achieve mode-hop-free, single-mode tuning?新焦點是如何實現無跳模,單模調整?

      All New Focus lasers start out as commercially available semiconductor diode lasers.所有的新焦點激光器作為市售的半導體二極管激光器。 These diodes typically operate with several longitudinal modes lasing simultaneously, leading to low coherence and large linewidths.這些的的二極管通常操作與幾個縱模激射同時,低的連貫性和大線寬。 One method of extracting highly coherent light from a semiconductor-based laser requires that you anti-reflection (AR) coat the diode so it acts only as a gain element.提取高度相干光從一個基于半導體激光器的一個方法,要求你防反射(AR)涂層的二極管,因此它的作用僅作為增益元件。 The diode can then be placed in an external cavity that contains wavelength-selective optics so that only a single mode lases at any given time.然后,該二極管可以被放置在一個外部的的空腔,包含波長選擇性的光學系統,以便在任何給定的時間內,只有一個單一的模式lases。 True single-mode tuning requires that the optical feedback be dominated by the external optics and not by reflections from the diode facet.真正的單模式的調整需要外部光學系統,而不是由二極管方面的反射光反饋是占主導地位。 We use a proprietary AR-coating process to reduce residual diode reflectivities to below 0.001 which guarantees single-mode operation.我們使用專用的AR涂層處理,以減少殘余二極管反射率低于0.001,保證單模工作。

      Once the diode is coated, we place it in an external laser cavity that is based on the modified Littman-Metcalf configuration.二極管一旦被涂覆,我們將它放置在一個外部的激光諧振腔是基于改性利特曼梅特卡夫配置。 In this cavity a grazing-incidence diffraction grating and a tuning element provide all the necessary dispersion for single-mode operation the amplitudes of non-lasing modes are suppressed to 40 dB below the lasing mode.在這個空腔掠入射衍射光柵和一個調諧元件提供所有必要的色散單模操作非激射模式的振幅被抑制到40分貝以下激射模。

      The wavelength in a modified Littman-Metcalf laser is changed by tilting the retroreflector, which changes the diffracted wavelength fed back into the cavity.通過傾斜的后向反射鏡,從而改變反饋到空腔中的衍射波長的改性利特曼梅特卡夫激光器中的波長被改變。 To prevent mode hopping, the cavity length must be kept at a constant number of wavelengths as the laser tunes.為了防止模式跳變,腔的長度必須保持在一個恒定的數量的波長作為激光曲調。 This requires that the pivot point around which the element tilts be positioned with sub-micron accuracy.這需要與亞微米精度定位,圍繞該元件的樞轉點傾斜。 Using a patented technique for pivot-point location, we produce lasers with no mode hops.利用專利技術為支點的位置,我們生產的無跳模激光器。 For all of lasers we can guarantee absolutely no mode hops over the entire specified tuning range.對于所有的激光器,我們可以保證絕對無跳模在整個調諧范圍。

      How can I tell if the laser mode hops?我怎么能告訴如果激光模式跳數?

      If the laser does mode hop, the frequency change will be 3 GHz, which is equal to the external-cavity free-spectral range.如果激光確實跳模,頻率的變化將是3千兆赫,這是等于外腔的自由光譜范圍。 (In contrast, for a poorly coated diode laser, it can be as much as 100 GHz.) We individually test every laser we build and ship them with printouts of their tuning curves, so you'll know exactly what to expect from your laser. (相反,不良的涂層激光二極管,它可以高達100 GHz的)。我們分別測試每一個我們建立的激光,并運送他們的調諧曲線與打印輸出,所以你確切地知道什么期望從你的激光。 (Please contact us if you would like to see sample tuning curves in your wavelength range.) (請聯系我們,如果你想看看樣品在您的波長范圍內的調諧曲線)。

      In what temperature range should I operate my laser to maintain single-mode operation?我應該在什么樣的溫度范圍內操作我的激光,以保持單模操作?

      The lasers will operate best in a temperature range from 15 to 35 °C, outside of which we can no longer guarantee single-mode operation.激光器將操作最好在溫度范圍從15至35°C,其中之外,我們可以不再保證單模操作。

      What's the difference between coarse and fine tuning?粗,細調之間的區別是什么?

      For our TLB-6700 Velocity™ Widely Tunable Lasers , we separate wavelength tuning of our lasers into coarse and fine tuning.對于我們的TLB-6700速度™的廣泛可調諧激光器 ,我們把我們的激光器的波長調諧到粗,微調。 Coarse tuning is accomplished by using a DC motor to turn a precision screw.粗調是通過使用直流電動機轉動一個精密螺釘。 An angle sensor incorporated in the laser cavity feeds back to the microprocessor to scan to the desired wavelength.結合在激光腔的角度傳感器反饋到微處理器掃描到所需波長。 On the end of the coarse-tuning screw is a piezoelectric actuator.粗調諧螺釘的端是一個壓電致動器。 This actuator provides independent fine control of the laser wavelength and can be used to modulate the laser frequency while it is being slowly scanned.該致動器提供了獨立的精細控制的激光波長,可以用來調制激光的頻率,而它被緩慢掃描。 Our TLB-6900 Vortex™ II Tunable Lasers and StableWave Tunable Lasers use this same fine-tuning piezoelectric mechanism.我們的TLB-6900渦™II可調諧激光器和StableWave可調諧激光器使用相同的微調壓電機制。

      How precisely can I set the wavelength?我如何精確地設置波長嗎?

      The coarse tuning mechanism on the Velocity lasers allows you to set the wavelength with a resolution of 0.02 nm.粗調機制的速度激光器可讓您設定分辨率為0.02 nm的波長。 The fine-frequency tuning resolution of the Velocity, Vortex, and Stablewave lasers is 10 MHz or about 2x10-5 nm when using the controller, with a range of approximately 0.2 nm.細的速度,渦,和Stablewave激光器的頻率調諧分辨率為10 MHz或約2×10-5納米時使用的控制器,一個范圍約0.2納米。

      How long after adjustment will the piezo become stable and how much drift will there be?多長時間調整后的壓電趨于穩定,有多少漂移會有嗎? (Vortex, Velocity, and Stablewave Series only) (僅適用于渦,速度和Stablewave的系列)

      There is roughly a 5% drift on the piezo over a period of several seconds after a significant wavelength change as the piezo relaxes.是壓電的漂移大約5%,過一段幾秒鐘后,顯著的波長變化作為壓電放松。 There should not be any significant amount of shift in wavelength from the wavelength displayed on the screen.不應該有任何顯著量的從在屏幕上顯示的波長的波長移位。

      With the Vortex and Stablewave tunable laser, how can I perform high-resolution wavelength scans over a narrow wavelength range?隨著渦和Stablewave的可調諧激光器,我怎么可以進行高分辨率的波長掃描,在一個狹窄的波長范圍?

      If you want to perform high-resolution wavelength scans over a narrow wavelength range, use the analog Frequency Modulation input on the back panel of the laser controller.如果你想在一個狹窄的波長范圍內進行高分辨率波長掃描,使用的模擬頻率調制的激光控制器后面板輸入。 The reason for this is that the electronic gain of the Frequency Modulation input can be selected to be either 25x or 1x.這樣做的原因是,可以選擇輸入的頻率調制的電子增益是25倍或1x。 This can only be done with the Vortex laser system, and it requires issuing a command through the GPIB or RS-232 interface.這只能渦的激光系統,它需要發出命令通過GPIB或RS-232接口。 By selecting the 1x gain for the Frequency Modulation input, the frequency resolution of the Vortex will be very high because it is less susceptible to electronic noise pick-up from the analog input signal.通過選擇1個增益的頻率調制輸入,渦街的頻率分辨率是非常高的,因為它是那么容易接機的模擬輸入信號的電子噪音。

      Output Beam Characteristics輸出光束特性

      What is the output-beam polarization?什么是輸出光束偏振?

      The output beams from all New Focus tunable lasers are linearly polarized in a vertical plane.從所有新焦點可調諧激光器的輸出光束在垂直平面內的線偏振光。 The polarization ratio for our lasers near 633nm is 50:1 and the polarization ratio for all other lasers is 100:1.我們近633nm波長的激光的偏振比為50:1和所有其他類型的激光器偏振比為100:1。

      What is the output-beam quality?輸出光束質量是什么?

      All of our lasers are nearly diffraction-limited, because they operate in the fundamental transverse mode (because of the high divergence of some diodes, you may see some clipping effects on the output beam).我們所有的激光器是近衍射極限的,因為他們工作的根本橫向模式(因為高分歧的一些二極管,你可能會看到一些剪裁的輸出光束的影響)。 For most of our TLB-6900 Vortex™ II Tunable Lasers , Velocity™ Widely Tunable Lasers and StableWave Tunable Lasers, the beam shape is elliptical, with approximately a 3:1 aspect ratio.對于大多數我們的TLB-6900渦™II可調諧激光器 , Velocity™系列產品廣泛可調諧的激光和StableWave可調諧激光器,光束形狀是橢圓形,約3:1的寬高比。

      What's the fiber used with the pigtailed lasers?使用的光纖與尾纖的激光器是什么?

      We use a single mode PM (polarization maintaining) Panda fiber with a cladding diameter of 125 µm and a 3mm jacket.我們使用一個單一的模式PM(偏振保持)熊貓光纖包層直徑為125μm和3mm夾克。 Both ends are terminated with FC/APC connectors with a wide key that is pre-aligned and locked to the slow axis.兩端被終止與FC / APC連接器具有寬密鑰預先對準和鎖定的慢軸。 The coupling loss from the laser to the fiber pigtail is 3 dB.從激光到光纖尾纖的耦合損耗為3 dB。 In other words, the typical coupling efficiency into the fiber pigtail is 50%.換言之,進入光纖尾纖的典型的耦合效率是50%。 The PM fiber is aligned with the polarized axis to within two degrees of the output polarization of the laser. PM光纖與偏振軸對準的激光的輸出偏振的兩自由度內。 This results in an 18 to 20-dB polarization ratio (approximately 100:1).這樣的結果在18至20分貝的偏振比(約100:1)。

      Frequency Characteristics頻率特性

      What's the frequency stability?什么是頻率穩定度?

      In constant-current mode, the frequency drift of the laser is less than 0.02 nm over an entire day and less than 5 MHz over a one-second interval.以恒定電流模式下,激光的頻率漂移是小于0.02 nm的整個天,超過一秒鐘的時間間隔小于5MHz。 Stabilizing the frequency of the laser is easy with an error feedback signal to the Frequency Modulation input on the back panel.穩定的激光的頻率是容易帶有錯誤反饋信號的背面面板上的頻率調制的輸入。 Using this technique, wavelength drift can be dramatically reduced.使用這種技術,波長漂移,可顯著減少。

      Can I stabilize the frequency of the laser?我可以穩定的激光的頻率?

      The laser can easily be locked either to an atomic line or to an external cavity using wavelength modulation techniques to produce a feedback signal.激光可以容易地被鎖定到一個原子的線或使用波長的調制技術,以產生反饋信號的一個外腔。 Dither the laser frequency through the Frequency Modulation input.通過頻率抖動的激光頻率調制輸入。 The error signal generated can then be fed back to stabilize the laser.產生的誤差信號,然后,可以反饋,以穩定的激光。

      What is the minimum observable frequency shift over >1-second intervals?最低觀察到的頻移超過1秒的時間間隔是什么?

      The minimum frequency shift that is observable over the frequency jitter of the laser is 1 MHz.最小頻移為1 MHz以上的頻率抖動的激光可觀察。

      What is the wavelength-modulation bandwidth?什么是的波長調制帶寬?

      While you can modulate the wavelength by scanning the drive motor (coarse tuning) or by changing the laser-drive current, the most straightforward way to modulate the laser wavelength is by changing the voltage to the PZT actuator on the tuning element.盡管你可以調節的波長掃描驅動電機(粗調),或通過改變激光器的驅動電流,最簡單的方法來調節激光的波長是通過改變電壓的壓電陶瓷驅動器的調諧元件。 The small-signal bandwidth of the fine-frequency input is 2 kHz in the Velocity lasers and 3.5 kHz in the Vortex and Stablewave lasers.優良的頻率輸入的小信號帶寬的速度激光器為2 kHz,3.5 kHz的的旋渦和Stablewave的激光器。

      What happens to the signal after the Frequency Modulation Input?頻率調制后的信號輸入會發生什么事?

      The voltage that you apply at the Frequency Modulation Input is amplified by an analog high-voltage amplifier, and then applied to the piezo.適用于以下的頻率調制的輸入的電壓是由一個模擬高電壓放大器放大,然后施加到壓電。 This circuit does not have a DA converter.該電路不具有DA轉換器。 Therefore, you should see a smooth fine-frequency tuning response when you apply an analog signal to the Frequency Modulation Input.當你申請一個頻率調制輸入的模擬信號,因此,你應該看到一個光滑精細的頻率調諧響應。

      Is the minimum frequency resolution different than 10 MHz when using a computer?是使用電腦時的最低頻率超過10 MHz的分辨率不同?

      If a computer is used to control the fine-frequency tuning of the laser, then the resolution will be approximately 100 MHz or less.如果使用一臺計算機來控制微細的頻率調諧的激光,則分辨率將是約100 MHz或以下。 The reason for this is that when using a computer, the minimum step size of the piezo voltage is 0.1 volts.這樣做的原因是,在使用一臺計算機時,在壓電電壓的最小步長為0.1伏。 A 0.1-volt voltage change on the piezo corresponds to a frequency shift of approximately 100 MHz. 0.1伏的壓電元件上的電壓變化對應于約100兆赫的頻率漂移。

      The Velocity, Vortex, and Stablewave lasers have a minimum frequency resolution of 10 MHz (or, 2x10-5 nm).速度,的渦,和Stablewave激光器有一個最小頻率分辨率為10 MHz(或2×10 - 5納米)。 However, the only way to access this minimum frequency resolution is by using the Frequency Modulation input on the back panel of the laser controller.然而,唯一的方式來訪問這個最低的頻率分辨率是通過使用背面板上的激光控制器輸入的頻率調制。 The Frequency Modulation input is an analog voltage input that is used to control the piezo voltage.的頻率調制的輸入是一個模擬電壓輸入,用來控制壓電電壓。

      So, if you want to perform a wavelength scan with a frequency resolution of 10 MHz, then you will need to supply a low-noise analog voltage signal to the Frequency Modulation input.所以,如果你要進行波長掃描分辨率為10 MHz的頻率,那么你將需要提供一個低噪聲的模擬電壓信號的頻率調制輸入。 Alternately, if you want to scan the laser wavelength in 0.001 nm steps (or, approximately 300 MHz frequency steps), then you can use the computer interface to change the piezo voltage in 0.1-V steps.另外,如果你要掃描的激光波長為0.001 nm的步驟(或約300 MHz的頻率步長),那么你可以使用電腦的接口改變壓電電壓在0.1-V步驟。

      What is the input impedance and protection circuitry of the frequency modulation input?這是輸入的頻率調制的輸入阻抗和保護電路的?

      The input impedance is 4 k Ω.輸入阻抗為4 KΩ。 The input protection circuit consists of two 4-V Zener diodes tied to ground輸入保護電路由兩個4-V的齊納二極管連接到地面

      Coherence Effects相干效應

      Can I eliminate coherence effects due to the narrow linewidth?我能消除相干效應的窄線寬?

      If you're working with unterminated fibers, you may be concerned about possible coherence effects due to the narrow linewidth.如果你的工作未結束的纖維,你可能會擔心可能的相干效應的窄線寬。 For most measurements, a simple way to make the linewidth appear much broader is to apply a signal to the piezo in order to frequency modulate the laser.對于大多數的測量,一個簡單的方法,使線寬更廣泛的出現是應用到壓電信號,以便調制激光頻率。

      Output Intensity Characteristics輸出強度特性

      How stable is the output amplitude?穩定的輸出幅度如何? Can I amplitude-stabilize the laser?我可以振幅穩定的激光嗎?

      The amplitude stability of our Velocity lasers over 10 seconds is better than 0.25% at any given wavelength.我們的速度激光器的振幅穩定性優于0.25%,在10秒內,在任何給定的波長。 In stable-power mode, the amplitude is typically constant to within ±5% as the laser is tuned.振幅在穩定的功率模式下,通常是常數,以在±5%之內,作為激光器被調諧。 (Stable-power mode is available only for scans at less than 1% of the maximum scanning speed and it is not available at all wavelengths.) To prevent optical feedback from affecting the laser's performance, we recommend using an optical isolator with our free-space lasers. (穩定的電源模式只用于掃描的最大掃描速度小于1%和它是不是在所有波長。)為了防止光反饋影響激光器的性能,我們建議使用光隔離器與我們的自由空間激光器。 To prevent étalon effects in free space or fiber components, which could create amplitude modulation while scanning, we recommend slightly tilting your optics and using FC/APC fiber connectors.為了防止在自由空間或纖維成分,可以創建振幅調制,而掃描的標準具效應,,我們建議稍微傾斜的光學和使用FC / APC光纖連接器。

      What limits the intensity noise?強度噪聲什么限制?

      The intensity noise of our ECDLs is directly related to the current noise in the laser-diode drive current.直接相關我們ECDLs的強度噪聲中的激光二極管的驅動電流的電流噪聲。 In constant-current mode, the intensity noise of the laser output is limited by the current noise of the drive electronics.以恒定電流模式下,噪聲強度的激光輸出的驅動器電子電路由電流噪聲的限制。 Our low-noise controllers make our systems among the quietest ECDLs available at <0.1% RIN.我們的低噪聲控制器使我們的系統,也是最安靜的ECDLs <0.1%RIN。 In stable-power mode, the current noise is necessarily increased by the feedback mechanism.在穩定的功率模式下,電流噪聲必然是增加的反饋機制。 This results in small increases in both short-term intensity noise and linewidth.這樣的結果在短期噪聲強度和線寬的小幅增長。

      Can I modulate the laser amplitude?我可以調節激光振幅嗎? Will the wavelength be affected?的波長會受到影響嗎?

      You can modulate the laser current by applying analog voltages to the Current Modulation Input at a rate of up to 1 MHz with a modulation amplitude of up to 2-mA peak.您可以調制的激光通過施加電流調制輸入的模擬電壓在最多為1 MHz的速率與調制振幅高達2-mA峰值電流。 You can also modulate the laser's amplitude with a bandwidth of 100 MHz and an amplitude of up to 10-mA peak through the SMA connector on the laser head.你也可以調節激光的振幅用的帶寬為100 MHz和振幅高達10-mA峰值通過SMA連接器上的激光頭。 Small changes in the index of refraction of the laser-gain medium as a function of laser current leads to changes in the laser wavelength when the current is modulated.作為一個功能的激光電流引線的變化中的激光波長,當電流調制的激光增益介質的折射率在索引中的小的變化。 The wavelength-modulation coefficient depends strongly on each laser diode's characteristics, but is typically 50 MHz/mA and at most 1 GHz/mA.的波長調制系數強烈地依賴于每一個激光二極管的特性,但一般為50 MHz / mA和至多1 GHz的/毫安。

      What is the input impedance and conversion of the Current Modulation Input?什么是輸入阻抗的電流調制輸入和轉換嗎?

      The input impedance is 5k Ω and conversion is 0.2mA/V.輸入阻抗5KΩ和轉換0.2毫安/ V。

      Changing Laser Heads改變激光頭

      Are the laser heads interchangeable?是激光頭可以互換嗎?

      Yes.是。 The same controller will work with any laser head in its family.在同一個控制器工作與任何激光頭在其家庭。 However, for the TLB-6700 Velocity™ Widely Tunable Lasers , wavelength calibration for each laser head is guaranteed only when it is used with its original controller.然而,對于TLB-6700速度™的廣泛可調諧激光器 ,波長校準為每個激光頭只保證使用時,其原有的控制器。 Laser heads will not work with controllers from other families.與其他家庭控制器,激光頭將無法正常工作。 (When ordering additional laser heads for a controller, initial calibration of the head to the controller may be required.) (為控制器訂貨時額外的激光頭,頭到控制器的初始校準可能需要)。

      How do you change laser heads to reach different wavelength ranges?你如何改變,以達到不同的波長范圍的激光頭?

      Prealigned optics give you no-fuss interchangeable heads.預校準光學沒有給你大驚小怪互換頭。 Positioning the laser-cavity optics for mode-hop-free tuning is a time-consuming task, and the New Focus approach to changing wavelengths takes this burden off your shoulders.激光腔的光學定位模式跳免費調音是一個耗時的任務,新焦點的方法來改變波長你肩上的負擔。 We do all the precision adjustments at our factory and send you a sealed, adjustment-free laser head.在我們的工廠,我們做所有的精密調整,并給你一個密封的,調整激光頭。 Should you need another wavelength outside the range of your first laser head, you can simply plug in a different laser head, with no adjustments needed.如果你需要另一種波長的范圍之外,你的第一個激光頭,你可以簡單地插在不同的激光頭,沒有必要的調整。 (When ordering additional Velocity laser heads, initial calibration of the head to the controller may be required.) (訂貨時,可能需要額外的的速度激光頭,頭到控制器的初始校準)。

      How many laser heads can I operate at one time?多少個激光頭,我可以在同一時間?

      Each controller can operate one laser head at a time.在一個時間,每個控制器可以操作一個激光頭。 To operate two lasers simultaneously, you need two controllers.兩束激光同時運作,你需要兩個控制器。

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