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  • 歡迎訪問南京標桿科技有限公司!
    025-83692298
    • 一般光學問題

      How do I clean my optics?如何清理我的光學嗎?

      In general, if it's not dirty, don't clean it.在一般情況下,如果它不臟,不干凈。 Handling optics increases their chances of getting dirty or damaged, so you should clean optics only when necessary.處理光學會增加弄臟或損壞的機會,所以你應該只在必要時清潔光學。 You should handle optics in a clean, low-dust environment while wearing powder-free acetone-impenetrable gloves or finger cots.你應該處理光學在一個干凈,低粉塵的環境中,而穿著粉丙酮堅不可摧的手套或指套。 Since oil and debris from your hands or from used lens tissue can stain or damage optical coatings, you should not touch any transmissive or reflective surface of your optic and never reuse a lens tissue.由于油污和雜物從你的手中,或從使用鏡頭紙弄臟或損壞的光學鍍膜,你不應該觸摸你的視覺透射或反射的表面,永不再用鏡頭紙。 Remember that lens tissues are inexpensive compared to the price of an optic.請記住,鏡頭紙的光纖的價格相比,價格便宜。 Please refer to Care and Cleaning of Optics for complete optics cleaning instructions.請參閱保養和清潔光學完整的光學清潔說明。

      Mirror Questions鏡子的問題

      How do I choose the right mirror for my application?我該如何選擇合適的鏡子,我的應用程序?

      To make sure you get the right mirror for your application, we offer several different types of mirrors.為了確保你得到正確的鏡為您的應用程序,我們提供了幾種不同類型的鏡子。 The durability and high reflectivity of our broadband dielectric mirrors (Models 51X0, 51X1, and 51X2) make them ideal for general laboratory use.我們的寬頻介電鏡(型號51X0,51X1,51X2)的耐用性和高反射率一般實驗室使用的理想選擇。 Models 51X4 and 5105 are designed especially for high-power Nd:YAG applications at 1064 nm and 532 nm.模型51X4和5105頃的,尤其是對高功率Nd:YAG 1064 nm和532 nm的應用。 Our general-purpose metal mirrors (Models 51X3 and 51X8) have minimal dispersion and are great for ultrashort-pulse applications.我們一般用途的金屬反射鏡(51X3和51X8型)具有最小的色散和偉大的超短脈沖應用。 To ensure quick delivery, all of our mirrors are shipped from stock.為了保證快速交貨,我們的鏡子都運到股票。

      Can I use New Focus mirrors in transmissive applications?我可以使用新焦點鏡中傳輸的應用程序嗎?

      No, it is not possible to use our mirrors in transmissive applications because we use Pyrex substrates.不,這是不可能使用的反射鏡的透射的應用程序,因為我們使用Pyrex基板。 Pyrex has inhomogeneities in its refractive index, which make it a poor material for optical transmission applications.高硼硅在其折射率的不均勻性,使一個貧窮的材料為光傳輸應用。 This is the reason why the back surfaces of the mirrors are sandblasted.這是一個反射鏡的后表面進行噴砂處理的原因。

      Why does New Focus use Pyrex as the substrate?為什么新焦點使用高硼硅為基板嗎?

      We chose Pyrex for our substrates because it offers a lower thermal expansion coefficient than BK7 optical glass and polishes more easily than fused quartz.我們選擇的Pyrex為我們的底物,因為它提供了一個低的熱膨脹系數比BK7的光學玻璃和拋光更容易比熔凝石英。 Because Pyrex has inhomogeneities in its refractive index, these mirrors are not suited for transmissive applications.由于的Pyrex有其折射率的不均勻性,沒有適合于透射的應用程序,這些反射鏡。 We fine-grind the backside substrates to prevent inadvertent transmissions.我們精細研磨的背面基板,以防止意外的傳輸。 All the edges are chamfered to avoid chipping during use.所有的邊緣被倒角,以避免在使用過程中碎裂。

      What's the surface quality of the mirrors?反射鏡的表面質量是什么?

      47B3 Typical Flatness: Our 1 inch mirrors are flat to less than a tenth of a wave. 典型的平整度:1英寸的鏡子是平的不到十分之一的波。 In this graph, the red areas are +0.0143 waves and the purple areas are -0.0221 waves at l=633 nm 在該曲線圖中,紅色區域是0.0143波和紫色區域是-0.0221在l = 633nm的波

      The surface quality of an optic is described by its surface figure and irregularity.某個光學元件的表面質量,所描述的表面圖和不規則。 Surface figure is defined as peak-to-valley deviation from flatness, including any curvature (also known as power) present.表面圖被定義為峰 - 谷平面度偏差,包括任何曲率(也稱為電源)本。 Surface irregularity is represented by the peak-to-valley deviations when power is subtracted.表面的凹凸來表示功率中減去時,由峰 - 谷偏差。 Our front-surface figure is guaranteed flat to less than l/10 at 633 nm over a 1" diameter. Our 2" mirrors have a figure of l/4 over the full 2" diameter.我們的前表面數字小于L/10平保證在633 nm在一個直徑為1“2”鏡子有一個數字在整個2“直徑的l / 4。

      What does the MIL-M-13508-C mean? MIL-M-13508-C是什么意思?

      This is a durability standard for reflective coatings.這是一個反射涂層的耐久性的標準。 It consists of a series of tests that the coating must withstand.它由一系列的測試,該涂層必須能承受。 Among these tests are:在這些測試中是:

      • Exposure to temperatures from -80 to +160 °F暴露于溫度范圍從-80到160°F。
      • 50 strokes with a cheesecloth 50招用紗布
      • Coating does not peel away from the substrate when pulled with cellophane tape涂層不被拉用玻璃紙膠帶剝離時,從基板
      • Exposure to 90-100% humidity at 120 °F暴露于濕度為90-100%,在120°F的
      • Exposure to salt spray暴露于鹽霧

      Do I need to handle metal mirrors differently than dielectric mirrors?我需要處理不同的介質鏡金屬鏡嗎?

      Yes, metal coatings are softer and therefore more easily damaged than dielectric coatings.是的,金屬涂層柔軟,因此更容易受到損傷比介電層。 It's best to clean metal mirrors using the immersion technique described above.這是最好的清潔金屬鏡使用上述浸漬技術。 For long-term storage, keep your metal mirrors in a dry environment to protect them from tarnishing and oxidizing.對于長期儲存,讓您的金屬鏡在干燥的環境,以保護他們免受玷污和氧化。 Unless you need the wide spectral reflectivity and constant phase-shift of our metal mirrors, we recommend our broadband dielectric mirrors.除非你需要在很寬的光譜反射率和恒定的金屬鏡的相移,我們建議我們的寬帶介質鏡。

      I need a custom coating.我需要一個定制的涂層。 Can New Focus supply a custom mirror?新的重點提供一個自定義的鏡子嗎?

      Our mirrors are polished and coated by an outside vendor, and New Focus does not have the capability to perform custom polishing or dielectric coatings.我們的鏡子打磨和涂外部供應商,新焦點沒有能力執行自定義的拋光或電介質的涂料。

      For applications using ultrashort pulses, which mirror should I use?對于使用超短脈沖的應用程序,我應該使用哪個鏡像?

      Dielectric mirror coatings can cause significant dispersive effects for ultrashort pulses.介電鏡涂料可能會導致顯著的超短脈沖的色散效應。 The dispersion of the material and the interference effects between the layers result in rapid phase variations at specific wavelengths.的分散體的材料和層之間的結果在快速的相位變化,在特定波長的干擾效應。 Since the group delay is related to the slope of the phase variation, these wavelength regions introduce significant group-delay errors that can broaden and distort your pulse.由于群延遲有關的相位變化的斜率,這些波長區域的引入顯著的群延時,可以擴大和扭曲你的脈搏的錯誤。 Therefore, for applications requiring ultrashort pulses, such as those with Ti:Sapphire lasers, we suggest using our silver-coated mirrors, which have minimal phase distortion.因此,對于需要超短脈沖,如那些與Ti:藍寶石激光器的應用中,我們建議使用我們的銀包覆的鏡子,其中具有最小的相位失真。

      Plano-Convex & Aspheric Lens Questions平凸非球面鏡片的問題

      How do I choose the right lens?我該如何選擇合適的鏡片?

      99重點ASPH鏡頭 99準直ASPH鏡頭

      A good way to estimate the best lens to use in your experiment is to choose the focal length of the lens using this formula:估計在實驗中使用的最好的鏡頭是一個很好的方法來選擇焦距的鏡頭使用這個公式:

      f=[dDp]/4l F = [DDP / 4L

      where f is the lens focal length, d is the beam diameter at the focus, D is the 1/e2 diameter of the collimated beam, and l is the wavelength.其中f是透鏡的焦距,d是焦點處的光束直徑,D是的1/e2的準直束的直徑,和l是波長。 If you are collimating a beam, you also need to make sure the NA of the lens is larger than that of your fiber or diode so that you are capturing all the available light.如果你是準直光束,你還需要確保NA的鏡頭是大于纖維或二極管,以使您捕捉所有可用的光。 When focusing into a fiber, be sure that the NA of the focused beam is smaller than the NA of the fiber to maximize coupling efficiency.當聚焦成纖維時,確定的聚焦光束的NA小于NA的光纖耦合效率最大化。 This analysis will give you a good estimate, but you may find that you need to try a few lenses to get optimum focusing, which is why the kit can be especially convenient.這種分析將會給你一個很好的估計,但你會發現,你需要嘗試幾個鏡頭,以獲得最佳的聚焦,這就是為什么該試劑盒可特別方便。

      Why should I use an aspheric lens?我為什么要使用非球面鏡片?

      Aspheric lenses are designed to refract light at large angles without introducing any significant spherical aberrations.的目的是在大角度的光線折射,而不會引入任何重大的球面像差的非球面鏡片。 Consequently, they can have much shorter focal lengths than comparably sized spherical lenses.因此,他們可以有更短的焦距比同等大小的球面鏡片。 Because an aspheric surface minimizes the aberrations experienced by rays traveling through the outer circumference of a lens, these lenses are especially useful for low f-number* applications.由于非球面表面的光線行進通過透鏡的外周所經歷的像差最小化,這些透鏡低f數*應用是特別有用的。 Such applications include diode-laser collimation and coupling light into and out of optical fibers.這樣的應用包括二極管激光準直和光耦合到滿分根光纖。 One surface of these lenses is aspheric while the other is either plano (Models 5721, 5725, and 5726) or convex (Models 5722, 5723, and 5724).這些透鏡的一個表面是非球面的,而其他是平凹(型號5721,5725,和5726)或凸(型號5722,5723,和5724)。 Those with plano second surfaces have the least aberrations while those with convex second surfaces have the lowest f-number.普萊諾的第二表面有至少畸變而凸的第二表面具有最低的f值。

      * f-number (f/#)=focal length/lens diameter~(2 NA)-1. * f數(的f /#)​​=焦距/透鏡直徑〜(2 NA)-1。

      How well centered are the lenses in their holders?以及中心在其持有的鏡頭嗎?

      The tolerance for the centration of the aspheres (that is, the difference between the mechanical center of the lens and the location of the optical axis) is specified at 3 µm.的對中的非球面透鏡(即,機械中心的鏡頭的光軸的位置之間的差異)的公差為指定在3μm。

      ND Filter Questions ND過濾器的問題

      How do I avoid étalon effects?如何避免標準具效應?

      For best results, align filters at a slight angle to your incident beam.為了達到最佳效果,在一個很小的角度,以您的入射光束對準過濾器。 This will reduce étalon effects.這將減少標準具效應。

      Wave Plate Questions波片的問題

      How does a wave plate work?波片是如何工作的呢?

      Light that is incident upon a wave plate is resolved into two components.入射的波片后的光被分解成兩個組件。 One component travels along the "fast" axis of the crystal at a higher phase velocity than the component along the "slow" axis.沿著“快”的晶體在一個更高的階段速度比“慢”軸組件沿軸的一個組成部分。 The polarization of the output beam depends on the phase difference between the two components produced by that velocity difference.輸出光束的偏振依賴于由該速度差產生的兩個組件之間的相位差。

      What does a half-wave plate do?一個半波片做什么?

      A half-wave plate produces a relative phase difference of p radians between fast- and slow-axis waves.半波板產生的相對相位差之間的P弧度的快軸和慢軸波。 If the incoming light is polarized at an angle a with respect to the fast axis, the outgoing light will be rotated by 2a about the fast axis.如果入射光是偏振光的快軸相對于在一個角度a,出射光將是有關的快軸2a的轉動。 Half-wave plates also flip the handedness of circularly or elliptically polarized light.半波片翻轉圓形或橢圓偏振光的左右手。

      How do I change the orientation of linearly polarized light?我該如何改變方向的線偏振光?

      99 bereks線性關系,線性 Half-Wave Plate: Use a half-wave plate to change the orientation of linearly polarized light. 半波片:使用一個半波片改變的方向的線偏振光。 99 bereks線性關系圓形 Quarter-Wave Plate: A quarter-wave plate allows you to convert linearly polarized light to elliptically polarized light. 四分之一波片:一個四分之一波片可以讓你轉換線偏振光,橢圓偏振光。 For the special case where the incident light is oriented at 45° with respect to either principal axis, the resulting light will be circularly polarized. 對于特殊的情況下,入射光是在45℃相對于任一主軸線取向,所得到的光將成為圓偏振光。

      A half-wave plate will change the orientation of linearly polarized light.的半波片的直線偏振光的方向會改變。 To verify that you have the correct linear polarization direction, orient a polarizer so that it blocks the desired polarization.為了驗證是否有正確的線性偏振方向,偏振鏡的方向,因此,它可以阻止所需的偏光。 If necessary, adjust the half-wave plate to achieve full extinction.如果有必要,調整半波片,以達到完全滅絕。

      How do I change linear polarization to circular?我該如何改變線性極化,圓嗎?

      Determining handedness is difficult if you don't know the orientation of the fast and slow axes of the wave plate.確定的霸道是困難的,如果你不知道波片的快軸和慢軸方向。 With the Model 5540 Berek's wave plate, however, identifying the fast and slow axes is simple.使用型號5540貝雷波板,然而,確定的快,慢軸是簡單的。 The wave plate works by tilting a uniaxial piece of material, whose face is perpendicular to the optic axis.波片的工作原理是傾斜的單軸一塊材料,其是垂直于光軸的面。 The slow axis is always in the plane of incidence, perpendicular to the tilt-rotation axis.的慢軸是總是在垂直于入射平面的傾斜旋轉軸線。 Once the orientation of the fast and slow axes is known, LHC and RHC polarization can be determined by using a polarizer and the compensator as a quarter-wave plate.一旦的快軸和慢軸的方向是已知的,可確定LHC和RHC偏振通過使用作為四分之一波片的偏振器和補償器。 For LHC, if the slow axis of the quarter-wave plate is along the Y-axis, the output of the wave plate will be linear at -45° to the X-axis and transmitted through a polarizer oriented at 45° to the X-axis.對于LHC,如果四分之一波片的慢軸與沿Y軸,波片的輸出將是線性的,在-45℃到X-軸和透過偏振取向為45°的X軸。 RHC will be blocked. RHC將被阻止。 Rotating the wave plate or polarizer by 90° reverses the result.旋轉的波片或90°的偏振片,反轉的結果。

      What's the difference between a zero-order and a multiple-order wave plate?的零階,多階波板之間的區別是什么?

      Wave plates that add a multiple of the desired phase shift (the desired phase shift plus extra 2p shifts) are called multiple-order wave plates.波片,添加的倍數的所述期望相位偏移(所需的相位偏移加上額外的2p的移位)被稱為多階波片。 Zero-order wave plates introduce only the desired phase shift.零級波片只介紹所需的相移。 Since there is significantly less accumulation of phase shift in a zero-order wave plate, they are less sensitive to temperature fluctuations and wavelength changes.由于有顯著少的積累在一個零階波片的相移,它們是對溫度波動和波長變化較不敏感。

      What wave plate would you use in ultrashort applications?在超短的應用程序,你會用什么樣的波板?

      When you're using wave plates with ultrashort pulses, it's important to use zero-order wave plates because of their wide retardance bandwidths.當你使用超短脈沖波板,重要的是要使用零級波片,因為其廣泛的延遲帶寬。 For example, a zero-order wave plate provides a half-wave retardance to within 1% over a ±7-nm bandwidth.例如,一個零階波板提供了一個半波延遲超過±7 nm帶寬在1%以內。 A 100-fs pulse centered at 800 nm has a bandwidth of about 9 nm. 100 fs的脈沖為800 nm的帶寬約為9 nm。

      Is there an AR coating on the Berek's variable wave plate?有AR涂層貝雷變波板嗎?

      No, the Model 5540 variable wave plate uses a single piece of magnesium fluoride without any AR coating.否,型號5540可變波片,使用一個單件的氟化鎂沒有任何AR涂層。 We do not provide an AR-coating for the magnesium fluoride because this material has a refractive index that is fairly low (about 1.40).我們不提供AR涂層的氟化鎂,因為這種材料的折射率,是相當低的(約1.40)。 This corresponds to a reflectivity of about 2.8% per surface, and so, the transmission of the Model 5540 is calculated to be approximately 94.4%.這對應于每面的反射率約2.8%,因此,模型5540發送被計算為約94.4%。

      How can I get a wave plate with no moving parts?我怎樣才能獲得一個波板沒有移動部件嗎?

      If you want a variable wave plate with no moving parts, use a Model 4104 amplitude modulator without an exit polarizer.如果你想有一個可變的波板,沒有移動部件,使用型號4104不退出偏振器的振幅調制器。 This effectively acts as a voltage-variable wave plate.這有效地作為一個電壓可變波片。

      Beamsplitter Questions分光器的問題

      Which side of the beamsplitter cube is the input?哪一方的分光棱鏡的輸入?

      2002年偏振立方 Orienting our Beamsplitter Cubes 我們的分束鏡立方體方向

      The light should enter the beamsplitter through the prism with the dot on it.應該進入光通過棱鏡分光器的點就可以了。 This is the prism with the AR coating on it.這是與AR涂層上的棱鏡。 Input light should enter this prism to ensure the light reflects off of the coating and not the epoxy.應輸入的輸入光,以確保該棱鏡的光反射的涂層,而不是在環氧樹脂。 This is especially important if you are using a high-power laser because high power might damage epoxy.這是特別重要的,如果你使用的是高功率的高功率激光,因為可能會損壞環氧樹脂。 The arrow > on the other prism is for the vendor, and tells them where to test the face flatness of the cube.箭頭>的其它棱鏡的供應商,并告訴他們在哪里測試的立方體的表面平整度

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